Europe and Spain have not always been as we see them now. And probably thousands and thousands of years from now, they won't be like that either. Although the changes are gradually forging and the distribution of countries is now practically fixed, the cartography of all times has also had to reflect the movements of different civilizations and empires.
A historical map is a great graphic tool to understand the historical evolution of humanity. Hence, we see them regularly in history books and serve as support - fundamental - for students and teachers.
In this special of historical maps, we want to compile more than 200 images for free download . All we offer you are historical maps from different times and parts of the world. Of course, they all have a huge advantage: they have great quality and can be downloaded for free.
Historical map of Europe
We call it Old Europe and the truth is that it is not in vain. Our continent has many years of living history. Since the vigorous Roman Empire took over much of the territory, different peoples and circumstances have passed through here. Hence, historical maps are essential to understand our past. And maybe our present too.
Historical map of ancient Greece
It was the year 3,000 BC when a structured empire began to be built in Europe from ancient Greece. The Greeks organized autonomous communities which they called polis and were like city-states . His empire spanned the entire Aegean Sea, but he traded with Egypt and the Levant.
However, historians agree that it was not a great empire. That happened because of other invaders: the Macedonians and Romans. In any case, the Greeks launched different colonizations, to Ionia, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. There they founded cities that today are known under the names of Marseilles, Naples, Taranto, Sybars, Byzantium or Empúries, in the case of the Catalan colony . Towards Africa, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded other European cities, such as Tartessos or Cartagena. The Etruscan culture was established in northern Italy.
On the Greek influence in Europe and other regions we have different maps to turn to. One caveat: the order of these charts is not chronological. Nothing is further from reality. We have selected those maps that have seemed historically relevant, but they are mixed.
You can take the ones that interest you the most, but keep in mind that they are not ordered by dates or by events . Some are more graphic and in others you can even see the routes of Alexander the Great. Here you will see all his conquests, here a composition of the Hellenistic states, the most important colonies of Greece, the different territories and areas of expansion, the Greek settlements or the populated and colonized lands.
Here you can see the lands populated by the Greeks and the lands with Greek influence, an illustrative map with the goods that were exchanged between the polis, the Greek and Phoenician colonizations, and the map of the Greek migrations in different centuries (VIII - VI BC ).
Historical map of the Roman Empire
What is known as the Roman Empire was the third period of Roman civilization , just after the Republic. But why did it happen? What was your background? Well, no matter how little we have studied history, we will know that the expansion of Rome is the key.
The Romans extended their tentacles around the countries of the Mediterranean Sea , later reaching the Atlantic Ocean, the Caspian Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Sahara Desert and to the north, the banks of the Rhine and the Danube and the border with Caledonia .
The total area of the empire in its maximum period of expansion, under Trajan, was more than six square kilometers. A true domain that exerted absolute influence on the western civilization that we are today. Hence the study of the maps of the Roman Empire is so important.
In the networks we can find countless maps related to the Roman Empire . They can be very useful for both students and teachers who are interested in learning or disseminating all the history related to the cradle of Western civilization.
This offers us a clear point of view of the different areas of imperial Rome. But we also have this other one, which puts at our disposal some historical notes to better understand the different periods and movements .
If you are looking for a graphically impeccable map , you will like this one, because although it is simple, it has a minimalist touch that makes things very clear. This one is large in size and available in French and this one offers many interesting historical notes.
Here is the division into dioceses or the expansion of the Empire in the time of Trajan, which was the most splendid of the Roman Empire. And finally, as we can find so many maps related to this important time on the networks, we wanted to make a final selection of 20 maps of the Roman Empire that may be very useful to you. You have them all below: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20.
Historical map of medieval Europe
Looking for a historical map of medieval Europe? Well, calm down, because on the web you will find countless proposals . The irruptions of the Germanic peoples in Europe had fatal consequences for the survival of the Roman Empire.
In fact, the impossibility of maintaining such a vast empire caused the Roman provinces to fade little by little, but relentlessly. Maps of medieval Europe will help us understand the impact of the entry of the Germanic peoples , as well as the Byzantine Empire and the Arabs.
Also the irruption of high feudalism, the holy wars, the Black Death and the Renaissance or Awakening of Europe . We offer you a selection of twenty maps related to these themes that you can easily download, save and print: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20.
Historical map of Spain
Spain is a country with a lot of history. Like everyone. However, it may be that for the simple fact of residing here and studying or teaching the history of our country, you may be interested in downloading a historical map of Spain . Next, we are going to offer you a series of maps from all eras.
Historical map of the Old Age
In the Old Age of Spain - or rather, Hispania - we have to take into account three important periods. That of the indigenous peoples and historical colonizations, that of Carthaginian Hispania and that of Roman Hispania . What we offer you below is a series of twenty maps, all corresponding to these three important periods in the history of our country. You can download them directly from here: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
They are an excellent formula for understanding the primitive distribution of indigenous peoples in the Iberian Peninsula , as well as the different movements and colonizations of the Carthaginians and Romans. Maps can be complementary to understanding history lessons about that time, so they will come in handy to use them and reinforce our knowledge of the subject.
Historical map of the Middle Ages
The Middle Ages began in Spain with the fall of the Roman Empire. The process was not radical. This is what is known as de-Romanization, in part due to the loss of authority of central Rome. It is also necessary to take into account the phenomenon of the invasions of the barbarian peoples . These had a very important role with respect to this de-Romanization and, of course, in the composition of the new Spain that would remain later.
On the other hand, it is worth mentioning the Visigothic kingdom and the Muslim conquest, a people that Al-Andalus founded and that dominated a good portion of our peninsula for almost 800 years . The reconquest, the union between León and Castile and the late medieval crisis were other events that had a more than decisive role in the composition of today's Spain or, at least, in the character of its peoples.
Thus, on the Internet we will have the opportunity to download countless maps related to the Visigoth kingdom. If you want to download maps of Visigothic Spain , you can take a look at the ones we offer here: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. You will see that there are some simpler ones and that others can be more complex, if you need a higher level of complexity and information.
We can also find countless maps related to Al-Andalus. There were few years in which the Arabs were in the peninsula, so it is a very important time for the history of our country. Their contributions were vast, both in terms of customs, language or even gastronomy. Here are ten maps from that period: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Finally, we will get to the reconquest maps . Since 722, the Christians did not cease in their effort to reconquer what the Muslims had acquired. The reconquest lasted until 1492, at which time there was only a single Muslim stronghold left in Córdoba.
During the period of the reconquest, the map of Spain underwent many variations . In the sense that cities as important as Toledo or Zaragoza are recovered, and the Guadiana valley or Sierra Morena are recovered, until reaching the Guadalquivir valley, Valencia and the Balearic Islands.
In addition, between 718 and 1230 the most important Christian centers consist of the peninsula . We are talking about the kingdoms of Asturias, Navarra, León, Galicia, Portugal, Aragon and Castilla. From the 13th century on, the territory dominated by the Crown of Aragon expanded, and it did so towards the Mediterranean, and the union between Castilla and León.
Finally, we want to provide you with a collection of historical maps of the Spain of the reconquest . As we have already indicated in other sections, they are not arranged chronologically, but they are a global sample of all the movements - and there were not a few - that occurred in the peninsula.
Most offer a perspective with different maps , which will undoubtedly help you to recognize the changes that occurred between those centuries. You can download a total of ten, below: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
The Spanish empire and its maps
If you remember from your school years, there was a time when the sun never set in the kingdom of Spain. Then came the decline - until the loss of Cuba - but for all those years, the Spanish Empire dominated the largest area of territory it ever had.
Founded in 1492, this glorious period of Spain is called the Spanish Empire or Spanish Universal Monarchy . It is made up of the set of Spanish territories that govern the Hispanic dynasties, in a period that spans from the 16th to the 19th century (when the crisis ended).
The diachronic maps of this age are not particularly straightforward. Since the discovery of America in 1492, Spain colonized as if there was no tomorrow. This is how a good extension of America was made. This includes the southwestern United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands. There is also Central America and a large part of South America.
The explorers of the homeland also reached Alaska and British Columbia , integrating directly into what was then called the Crown of Castile or Spanish. However, later on, everything was diversified into two viceroyalties, known under the name of New Spain and Peru.
Little by little more colonies were incorporated : the East Indies (Philippines, Marianas and Carolinas), to finally pass to the division of the Viceroyalty of Peru: in Nueva Granada, Peru and Río de la Plata.
The different maps that we can find on the networks offer us a fairly broad panorama. Especially since many of those who will bring you here í chronological run through the expansion of the Spanish Empire for the Americas . Some do not have all the quality that we would like, but they are quite clear regarding territorial expansion.
Here we observe the distribution and the viceroyalties, while this other is simpler, but complies with the identification of the different countries. Here you can observe the reigns and the changes they experienced with the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties.
In case we need more detail on the distribution of the colonies in America , we also have interesting maps. This, for example, offers us the name of all the viceroyalties, with the different capitals and captaincies. This other one is more graphic, but it exemplifies perfectly - at least in visual terms, because it is mute - the colonization in America.
We also have information on the trade routes between Europe and America, although in some cases we can obtain data on the deployment of Spanish ships around the world.
Maps of religious wars
Moving forward in the years, let's take a look at another important map set. The one about the wars of religion in Europe . In case you are not very up to date on what, how and when it happened, we will remind you that these wars took place in Europe from 1524 to 1697.
The flame was lit by the Protestant Reformation in Northern Europe and Western Europe . In reality, the wars did not unleash each other, but the truth is that they did occur in the years to come. They obviously had in common that they owed their influence to the religious changes that occurred during the time.
The maps included here are related to all these events : the German Peasant War (1524-1525), the Kappel Wars of Switzerland (1529-1531), the Schmalkald War (1546-1547) in the Holy Roman Empire Germanicus, the Eighty Years 'War (1568-1648) in the Netherlands, the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) and the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) with direct consequences in Austria, Bohemia, France , Denmark and Sweden.
Maps of the Napoleonic Empire
It was one of the key moments in the history of the French Republic as we know it today. The First French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, was a sovereign state that spread across most of western and central Europe. This ranges from the coronation of Napoleon I, the emperor, to the abdication and exile on the island of Elba, in 1814.
As you know, Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most powerful military men in history . Fearful by the absolutist monarchies, he was able to control all of western and central Europe, with the exception of Great Britain and Portugal. During this period of expansion, the language that prevailed was French, although Italian, German and Spanish continued to coexist without problems. Despite this, the capital of the Napoleonic Empire remained in Paris.
Here is a map of the Napoleonic Empire that makes it perfectly clear what Napoleon Bonaparte's domains were . However, in the networks we will find a good number of explanatory and very good quality proposals. We propose a total of ten: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Maps of the British Empire
It was one of the largest that ever existed. The British Empire was the one that during the 16th and 20th centuries (we are talking about the year 1949) amassed different domains, colonies, protectorates and other types of territories around the world. They were administered, throughout that time, by the United Kingdom.
But why was it so important? Well, because it spread over almost 30 million square kilometers and a whopping 458 million inhabitants, which would be - nothing more and nothing less - a quarter of the world's population. It was, then, the largest empire in history.
Its importance is enormous, because through the Empire the language spread throughout the world and the United Kingdom did business around the planet. The UK undoubtedly printed its policies in countries such as Canada, Australia, Israel, South Africa, India, the United Arab Emirates, and New Zealand.
This first map offers us a fairly clear overview of what were the domains of the British Empire . This other map is much more complete, because it offers us additional data and a historical perspective on the events that marked the evolution of the Empire. Here you can check the most important movements, as well as many other key data related to the characteristics of the Empire.
World War I Maps
The First World War was one of the bloodiest events in recent Western history. It took place between July 28, 1914 and November 11, 1918, with truly deadly consequences for the history of the European peoples.
It perished more than nine million combatants and civilians seven million , quite high figure, due in part to technological sophistications that accompanied the fighting first. It paved the way for a good number of countries and the truth is that it radically changed the world political landscape.
In the networks we can find a huge amount of maps related to the First World War or the Great War, as it is also known. With this map, for example, we will know which are the central countries and the allies, as well as the main movements and operations that were carried out on the ground.
Then we can find many other interesting and illustrative maps : alliances between countries, conflicts and movements, political crises, keys to development, more alliances and even a historical wall-map to understand the most important events of the war.
World War II Maps
With Europe still bleeding from World War I and Spain mortally wounded by the end of a devastating Spanish Civil War, World War II began. It took place between 1939 and 1945 and was, because that is how history books record it, the deadliest war conflict in the history of mankind.
In the Second War, a large part of the world powers clashed, grouped into two military alliances: that of the Allies of World War II and the Axis Powers . Hundreds of millions of soldiers were mobilized around the world, but if something really marked this conflict it was, without a doubt, the Holocaust.
The mass death of civilians was one of the most dramatic and devastating events , with some 70 million victims, along with the use, for the first time in history, of nuclear weapons.
The complexity of the Second War makes it difficult to explain and study. Although it is not impossible. Maps can be a perfect complement to understand the development of this warlike conflict of utmost importance for the world as a whole.
This first historical map is frankly illustrative , because it clearly includes each and every one of the fronts and conflicts, highlighted in colors. In this there are different explanatory icons, another with light tones to identify the different areas, fronts and lines and the German offensives, German airs, Italian offensives and Soviet ones.
Here we also have a global map of the Second World War, in which in addition to showing the countries that have played an active role in the conflict, those that have remained neutral are also highlighted. A fact that can be extremely important when writing the history of other countries or understanding the reasons for one or other events.
Finally, we have found a conceptual World War II map that will come in handy as a summary of the conflict. Here the causes, characteristics, precedents and reasons for the end of the war are indicated.
Maps of the Spanish Civil War
And we finish this special of historical maps with a set of maps of the Spanish Civil War . The contest confronted the national and republican sides between 1936 and 1939, after the rise of the fascist Francisco Franco.
After losing the republican army, Spain was plunged into 40 years of dictatorship. In addition to violating the freedoms and fundamental rights of citizens, fascism killed thousands and thousands of men, women and children
To understand the evolution of the Spanish civil war , nothing better than studying it (as a complement) through a map. Some of the maps that we offer you here and that you can download directly from the Internet, offer a chronological evolution of events.
And when we talk about events we refer to the different military landmarks and the territories belonging to the national or republican side . We will find maps on military development, advances, the state of things at the beginning of the war (1936), national and republican offensives, the simplified phases in 1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939.
If you are interested in abounding in the early days of the war, perhaps this map will be very useful for you . Because it defines perfectly on the territory what was the state of things between August and September 1936, shortly after the July coup.
If you are also studying or are curious to know what the effects of the civil war were in terms of victims, perhaps you should take a look at the maps of mass graves. Places where thousands and thousands of people were buried, anonymously, that are still there.