The Windows 10 CMD, better known as Command Machine or Command Prompt, is a program integrated into Windows whose possibilities allow us to interact with the different functions of the system. From accessing folders or creating files to fixing external hard drives and SD cards . All this through CMD commands, which must be accompanied, as a general rule, by a series of arguments.
Weeks ago we showed the complete list of commands compatible with CHKDSK to repair hard drives. Days ago we saw as many DISKPART commands to clean and format a hard disk. This time we have made a compilation of all the CMD commands for Windows.
CMD Commands for CMD
Before getting into the subject with basic commands and advanced commands of CMD, it is convenient to know some of the most useful commands to interact with the Windows console itself.
- help : show all the commands supported by the CMD using a list that details all their functions.
- exit : close the current CMD window.
- cls : clean the command lines entered, as well as the responses from the machine.
- color : change the color of the console, either the wallpaper or the letters. It can be used with other commands to expand its functions. For example, color 1F to change the background to blue and the letters to white.
- see : check the version of Windows 10 that we have installed.
- time : view the current time of the computer.
- date : show or set a new date.
- systeminfo : show information related to the hardware of our computer, such as the amount of installed RAM, the processor model or the amount of available storage.
- logoff - Close current user session completely.
- shutdown : shut down the computer completely. Along with other complementary commands, we can configure aspects such as the time or the exact time to turn off the equipment. For example, shutdown -r to restart the computer or shutdown -s -t 60 to shut down the computer in 60 seconds.
Windows CMD Basic Commands
If we are neophyte users and we want to start in the world of CMD with basic and easy-to-remember commands, the program integrates a series of commands that allow us to create files, change the extension of a certain element or copy entire folders on hard drives and drives removable, among many other functions.
- dir : list the contents of a certain directory or folder to view all files and folders hosted in the indicated path.
- cd : access or go back to a specific directory or folder on the system. For example, cd / photos or cd: to go back in the current directory or folder.
- md : create a folder with the name indicated next to the command. For example, md photos or md memories.
- type : create a file with the name and extension indicated next to the command. For example, type accounts.txt or song.rtf. It can also be used to write text to compatible files. For example, robocopy C: \ foo C: \ bar / E or robocopy C: \ foo C: \ bar / COPYALL / E / R: 0
- copy : copy one or more files to the specified path. For example, copy song / Music or copy song.mp4 / Music.
- robocopy : copy one or more files to the specified path. The difference from copy is based on the possibility of copying large files and directory trees, as well as stopping the copy and even canceling it if we wish.
- move : move one or more files in the indicated path. For example, move song / Music or move song.mp4 / Music.
- rename : change the name or extension of a certain file. For example, rename song.mp3 song.mp4 or rename text1 text2.
- del : delete the specified file or folder. For example, from the song or from the song.mp4.
CMD Commands for Hard Drives and Removable Drives
Beyond CHKDSK and DISKPART, there are many commands that allow us to interact with internal hard drives and internal storage units, such as pen drives , SD cards or external hard drives. Functions ranging from repairing a certain drive to formatting it in case it does not work properly.
- diskpart : display and configure the partition properties of a specific disk. Once the command has been entered, it must be used in conjunction with other complementary commands. For example, clean C to clean disk C, select disk C to select it, or list disk to see a list of all inserted disks.
- diskcomp : compare the contents of two disks or storage units. For example, diskcomp [C: [E:]].
- format : format and erase the data on a certain drive in a Windows-compatible format. For example, format C or format E :.
- convert : convert FAT format disks to NTFS format disks. For example, convert F or convert E :.
- chkdsk : analyze a specific storage unit. Along with other supplementary commands, it is capable of carrying out actions such as formatting a disk or checking its sectors to repair them later. For example, chkdsk / F to troubleshoot a drive or chkdsk / R to repair bad sectors and recover information.
- defrag : defragment a hard disk to organize the information and improve its performance in the case of a mechanical hard disk. For example, defrag C or defrag E :.
- cleanmgr - Scan and clean the main Windows drive to free up space similar to the Windows Cleanup tool. For example, cleanmgr C or cleanmgr E :.
CMD commands for networks
Another of the main functions that CMD supports has to do with the use and diagnosis of networks with commands such as the well-known IPCONFIG.
- ipconfig : show the network information of our computer, such as the IP of our PC, that of our router or the subnet mask.
- netstat : show network information related to TCP / IP connection protocols and connection ports.
- getmac : show the MAC address of our computer to know its identity on the network.
- tracert : show the path of our computer when sending a certain packet to the host address that we indicate to verify the status and security of the connection. It can be used in conjunction with other commands to expand its functions. For example, tracert 220.127.116.11, tracert -h 4 18.104.22.168, or tracert yourexpert.com.
CMD Commands for Windows Programs
In addition to the tools derived from the network and disk functions, the Windows CMD allows you to interact with programs and system processes in case they show any type of error .
- control panel : open the classic Windows control panel.
- tasklist : show the complete list of running system processes and applications. In conjunction with other commands, we can close processes and kill them permanently. For example, taskkill / PID 578 to shut down the process that corresponds to PID 578.
- driverquery : show the complete list of drivers installed on the computer to recognize the respective components of the same.
Advanced CMD Commands for Windows
In addition to the commands we have just seen, there is a large number of instructions that allow us to access specific functions of the CMD. We can also make use of these same instructions to create small programs by pasting the code in a BAT file to perform actions automatically, commonly known as batch files or programs.
- call [X] : call a batch program from another program
- chcp : show or set code page number.
- chdir [X] : show or rename the current directory.
- chkntfs [X] : show or change disk check on system boot.
- cmd - Launches a new Windows CMD window.
- compact [X] : show or change the compression status of files on NTFS-formatted partitions.
- doskey : edit, retrieve and create command lines for the Windows CMD.
- echo "X" : launch messages and text strings in the CMD.
- erase [X] : delete one or more files.
- fc [X] : Compare two or more files and show the differences between them. It is less complete than compare.
- find [X] - Finds a message in one or more files at a time.
- findstr [X] - Finds a text string in one or more files at a time.
- for : parameter used to execute loops in executable files, which executes a series of lines as many times as indicated as long as the imposed condition is met.
- if : parameter used to execute loops in executable files, which executes a series of lines if a certain condition is met.
- label [X] : create, delete or change the volume label of a specific disk.
- mode [X] : configure a system device.
- openfiles : show all open files that have been shared with other users
- pause : suspend the execution of a batch file.
- print [X] : print a specific text file on screen.
- rd [X] : delete a specific directory.
- ren [X] : rename one or more files at a time.
- replace [X] : replace files.
- rmdir [X] : delete a specific folder or directory.
- sc : show the system services running in the background.
- title [X] : set the title of the CMD window.
- tree [X] : show the directory structure of a specific drive or path.
- type [X] : show the content of one or more text files in TXT, RTF, BAT ... format.
- verify [X] : verify that the files are correctly written to a specific disk.
- vol [X] : show the label of a certain volume and the serial number of the chosen disk.
- xcopy : copy files and directory trees.